What is agriculture? Types of Farming in India - gk lokam

15 March 2020

What is agriculture? Types of Farming in India

What is agriculture? Types of Farming in India

What is agriculture? Types of Farming in India

 What is agriculture meaning?

The word agriculture is derived from Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning, cultivation. 

Agriculture is a primary activity. 
to know what is a Primary activity? , click HERE

Agriculture  includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. 

Agricultural economy in India 

In the world, 50 per cent of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.

Agricultural land

Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity. 
The land on which the crops are grown is known as arable land 

so , coming back to  the definition of agriculture.

What is agriculture?

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming.

Also you can check;

What is Sericulture?

Commercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer

What is Pisciculture?

Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.

What is Viticulture?

Cultivation of grapes.

What is Horticulture?

Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.

What is a Farm System?

Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system. A system with inputs, operation and outputs.

The important inputs are seeds, fertilizers, machinery and labour. 

Some of the operations involved are ploughing,sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. 

The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry

Types Of Farming in  agriculture

Farming is practised in various ways across the world.

Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. 

These are  (i) subsistence farming and (ii) commercial farming.

What is Subsistence Farming?

This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. 

Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour are used to produce on small output.

Subsistence farming can be further classified as (a) intensive subsistence and (b) primitive subsistence farming.

What is Organic Farming?

In this type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals.

No genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.

(a) Intensive subsistence

In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. 

Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. 

Rice is the main crop. 

Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds. Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.

 (b) primitive subsistence farming.

Primitive subsistence agriculture includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.

What is Shifting cultivation?

 Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India. 

These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation.

A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. 

After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. 

Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.

Shifting cultivation is known by different names in different parts of the world
Jhumming - North-East India
Milpa -Mexico
Roca - Brazil.
Ladang - Malaysia

 What is Nomadic herding?

 Nomadic herding is practiced in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. 

In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes. 

This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain. 

Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.

(ii)Commercial Farming

In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. 

The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines.

Commercial farming includes (a)commercial grain farming, (b)mixed farming and (c)plantation agriculture 

(a)commercial grain farming

In commercial grain farming crops are grown for commercial purpose. 

Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains. 

Major areas where commercial grain farming is pracised are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia.

 These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares.

Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.

(b) mixed farming 

In mixed farming the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.

mixed farming is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

(c) Plantation Farming

Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. 

Large amount of labour and capital are required. 

The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.

The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.

Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. 

Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

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